# The basics of virtualenv

I use Python 3.4 in most of my data analyses and in some simulations. I like a lot of its features, like its implementation of generators, maps, and filters. However, much of the software on my Debian Wheezy system depends on Python 2.7 to run, such as Mendeley. (It used to run just fine with Python 3.4, until I ran an automatic update and that was the end of that.)

To run some Python 2.7 programs, I used to do the following:

sudo rm /usr/bin/python
sudo ln -s /usr/bin/python2.7 /usr/bin/python


I know. Ouch. Every single time I needed to run a program that depended on python2.7, I would delete the symlink in /usr/bin, make a new link to python2.7, and then run my program. When I needed to give various programs convenient access to python3.4, I would delete the symlink and create a new one to the newer version.

This was dumb, because there is a convenient Python-based tool that can fix the problem of needing multiple versions of Python (and libraries!) on the same system. The solution to this problem is called virtualenv.

There are a lot of descriptions about what virtualenv is on the internet, so I won't bother going into details here. Instead, I will focus on just the very basics of its setup and use so that I can have a handy future reference for when I forget how something works and so that others can profit from what I have learned. Most everything I've done came from python-guide.org, so I'm more-or-less putting what they have already said into my own words.

To start, I already have Python 2.7 and 3.4 installed on my system. In principle, you do not need them installed at the system level, but I already have done this so I will start from there. I first installed pip for Python 2.7 since I only had pip3 on my system to start. I did this because I want to keep Python 2.7 as my system's default Python environment.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install python-pip


Once installed, I used it to install virtualenv and virtualenvwrapper. The latter provides some nice features for working with virtualenv.

sudo pip install virtualenv
sudo pip install virtualenvwrapper


Now, virtualenvwrapper requires an environment variable to tell it where to store the folders for each virtual environment. This environment variable is called WORKON_HOME. First, I created the folder it will point to:

mkdir ~/Envs


Next, I edited my ~/.bashrc and added the following line:

export WORKON_HOME=~/Envs


All of my virtual environment files (except for the Python intepreters) will be stored in this folder. Finally, I restarted my terminal window so that the environment variable was assigned. You can check this by typing echo \$WORKON_HOME in your new terminal window. If it returns the path to your new environments folder, then you should be fine.

Next, I ran the virtualwrapper setup script. Note that I did not need sudo (in fact, sudo could not find a command called source'') and that no output is returned when the script is run.

source /usr/local/bin/virtualenvwrapper.sh


Now virtualenvwrapper should be installed, so let's make a virtual environment. We can do this using the mkvirtualenv command, followed by a name for the environment. I will use the name venv'' in this example, like Kenneth Reitz did in his guide that I linked above.

mkvirtualenv venv


To start the new virtual environment, type workon venv and note that change in the prompt, indicating which environment you are in. You now have a fresh Python environment to which you can add any library you wish. To leave the environment, type deactivate into your terminal.

One simple test that you can do to see whether your Python environment really is clean is to run the Python interpreter from inside your environment and try importing a module that you know is in your system-wide site packages but not in your virtual environment. For example, inside venv I type python at the terminal prompt and tried importing numpy, which I had not yet installed in venv:

import numpy


This returned an ImportError: No module named numpy. Since I do have numpy installed on my system but not in this environment, it tells me that the environment is likely clean.

To install new libraries, simply use pip or install them to the folder that was created for this environment in ~/Env. To delete a virtual environment entirely, use rmvirtual env.

Now, how can I specify that I want the virtual environment to use the python3.4 interpreter in a virtual environment named python3-general''? Doing so would solve my original problem. Simply make a new virtual environment like so:

mkvirtualenv -p /usr/bin/python3.4 python3-general


Voilà. C'est tout. I hope this helps you get up and running with this great tool!