Git notes

1 Commonly used Git commands

git add <file>
Add a file to the staging area
git checkout -b <branch name>
Creates a new branch and switches to it.
git commit -m <message>
Commits the files in the staging area to the repository
git commit –amend
Simply replaces the last commit with a new one, including files in the staging area with the latest commit. This is useful if files were missing from the previous commit.
git commit –amend -C HEAD
Adds a file to the most recent commit
git commit –amend -m <new message>
Fixes the message of the last commit.
git config –list
Lists parameters from the current configuration, such as the user name, e-mail address, and default text editor.
git diff
Show all differences between unstaged files and files in the working directory.
git diff –staged
Show all differences between staged files and the current working directory.
git fetch <remote name>
Get all data that you don't yet have from a remote repository. Merges must be manually performed. (Use git pull to automatically merge data from a repo with your working directory.)
git log
Show the commit history of the project. Best used with options like -p, –stat or pretty=oneline.
git merge <branch name>
Merge the branch <branch name> into the current working branch. Any conflicts will be highlighted in the conflicted files for you to fix.
git push origin master
Pushes the repository to the repository referenced by origin to the master branch.
git status
Lists tracked and untracked files, if they've been changed since the last commit, etc.
git remote -v
View the current remotes and their names.
git remote set-url origin <url>
Sets the URL or a remote.
git reset –hard HEAD~1; git push -f
Resets a bad commit to the previous one after a push.

2 Common working tips

2.1 Create a .gitignore file



Git can automatically ignore files that follow certain specified patterns. To do this, create a file called .gitignore inside the working directory. Inside this file, add the patterns you want Git to not even bother looking at.

For example, I can ignore the Emacs backup files that end in a tilde by simplying adding


to the file. Now, files ending in tilde won't even be listed as untracked when running the git status command.